Primrose (Primula) - plant - March 2018
===General information=== Primrose is a type of herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Primulaceae (primrose family). It originates from Europe and mostly inhabits temperate areas of Northern hemisphere. It grows on the moist, but well-drained soil, in partial shade. These conditions are typically for the grasslands, woodlands, hedgerows and areas near the roads. Primrose is often cultivated in pots or gardens in decorative purposes (because of its beautiful flowers). Besides that, primrose is used in treatment of various disorders (in folk medicine). The damp shady conditions found in woodland are perfect for primroses where they can grow in small clusters across the woodland floor. Primrose has hairy stem that can reach 4 to 12 inches in height. It has tongue-like, green leaves. They are wrinkled and toothed on the edges. The leaves are arranged in the form of a rosette at the base of the plant, close to the ground. Primrose produces individual flowers that are usually yellow colored. Flowers have short flower stalks. Some varieties of primrose produce white, red, pink and purple flowers.. Primrose blooms from March to May. When the winter is mild, blooming can start in December. Primrose produces bisexual flowers of two types: pin and thrum. Even though both types of flowers contain both types of reproductive organs, the male are female parts are not equally prominent. In the pin type of flowers, style (female reproductive organ) is exposed, while stamens (male reproductive organs) are located below. In the thrum type of flowers, stamens are prominent, while style is located deeply inside the flower. Unusual morphology of the primrose flowers ensures cross-pollination (flowers cannot perform self-pollination). Insects with long tongues (such as butterflies) collect pollen from one flower and transfer it on the style of another flower when they land on the primrose to feed on nectar. Fruit of primrose is capsule filled with miniature black seed. The Latin name for the primrose is "Primula". It originates from the word "primus" which means "first" or "early". The name refers to the fact that primrose is one of the first plants that bloom in the spring. The leaves and flowers of primrose are edible and often consumed in the form of salad. Young flowers of primrose can be used in the manufacture of wine. The Dried leaves can be used for the preparation of tea. Primrose is important source of food for the rare species of butterflies such as Duke of Burgundy Butterfly. Primrose was often used in treatment of paralysis, gout and rheumatism in the past. Tincture (alcoholic solution) of the primrose is used in treatment of insomnia, restlessness, headache and cough today. Primrose was used for the preparation of magic potions during the Middle Ages. The 19th of April is traditionally Primrose Day, marking the death of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli on April 19, 1881. Queen Victoria sent primroses to his funeral. Every year on April 19 primroses are placed by Disraeli’s statue outside Westminster Abbey. Primrose is a perennial plant, which means that it can survive for more than 2 years in the wild. According to an old English superstition a child who ate a Primrose might see a fairy. In Germany it was thought that the first girl to find a primrose at Easter would marry that year. The motto of the Scottish Clan Primrose is Fide et Fiducia (By Faith and Trust) Shakespeare introduced the phrase “the primrose path” or “the primrose way” to signify a lazy and pleasant route through life The Greeks called the primrose “flower of the 12 gods” (dodecatheon) through a belief in its power to heal diseases including paralysis ===Other common names=== Primrose Common primrose English primrose Blue primrose Culver keys ===*Useful resources=== https://ift.tt/2GEQzBf https://ift.tt/2FR2sCC https://ift.tt/2G3Ha8m https://ift.tt/2tUqIlZ https://ift.tt/2FY21K3 ===Scientific classification=== Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Ericales Family: Primulaceae Genus: Primula *Information sourced from the above sites
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